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Recall / multiple media / political

Type of measure > Recall

Measures political media use. Respondents indicated their frequency of use of different media separately. The scales were inverted and rescaled to range between 0 (never) to 1 (daily) to enable an assessment of maximum effects.

Recall / internet / general

Type of measure > Recall

Survey participants were asked how often they used each of the following platforms: Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Google Plus. The frequency of use of each social media platform was combined into an additive scale of general social media use, reversed so that higher values reflected higher frequency of use.

Recall / game / entertainment

Type of measure > Recall

Participants were asked four questions regarding their general video game play across four different time periods. This measure constituted a general video game playing estimate over approximately 5-6 years, from junior high to early college.

Exposure / game / violence

Type of measure > Exposure

Participants were asked to name their five favorite video games. After naming each game, participants responded on scales anchored at 1 and 7, rating how often they played the game and how violent the content and graphics of the game were.