Measures political media use. Respondents indicated their frequency of use of different media separately. The scales were inverted and rescaled to range between 0 (never) to 1 (daily) to enable an assessment of maximum effects.
The research area in which the measurement has taken place. For instance, political, entertainment, advertising, health, sex or general. A research can belong to more than one research area.
Survey participants were asked how often they used each of the following platforms: Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Google Plus. The frequency of use of each social media platform was combined into an additive scale of general social media use, reversed so that higher values reflected higher frequency of use.
Participants were asked four questions regarding their general video game play across four different time periods. This measure constituted a general video game playing estimate over approximately 5-6 years, from junior high to early college.
Measures exposure to sexualizing music entertainment television and magazines
Measures the degree to which participants consume violence on television or in games. The frequency and violent content items for each title are multiplied with each other; these scores are then averaged.
Measures exposure to violent content on television and in electronic games with two items each (four items total). The two items for each medium were multiplied to calculate the number of hours per week of violent television and violent game exposure.
Measures TV genre exposure: respondents are asked to indicate how often they watch specific TV genres
Measures mothers’ television viewing time. Television viewing time in hours per timeline was calculated by adding all of the marked checkboxes and dividing this sum by 4. Weekly television viewing time was calculated by multiplying the weekday viewing hours (Timeline 1) by 4 and adding the result to the number of hours reported for Wednesday (Timeline 2) and Saturday and Sunday (Timeline 3).
Measures children’s television viewing time according to the procedure outlined by Van den Bulck and colleagues (e.g., Van den Bulck, 2006; Van den Bulck & Hofman, 2009)
This is modified version of the General Media Habits Questionnaire (Anderson & Dill, 2000). To calculate EMV exposure, ratings of physical violence for each title were multiplied by the corresponding amount of time spent watching or playing, and averaged for all 10 listed favorite media.
Measures consumers’ cumulative perceptions of the global value of a brand’s past advertising.
Measures reliance for information on a given medium
Measures the level of television exposure. Participants provide de amount of previous day television viewing, and their usual weekday viewing levels.
Measures general media exposure: TV (hrs/week), radio (hrs/week), internet (hrs/week), newspaper (days/week), national TV news (days/week), and local TV news (days/week)
Childhood TV-violence viewing: A child’s overall violence score was computed by summing the violence scores for the favorite programs and weighting them by how often they were watched.
This exposure measure consist of a simple three-step measurement: Audio, page and stream.
The Content-based Media Exposure (C-ME) Scale includes 12 items that measure the extent to which one exposes him-/herself to antisocial or risk behavior media content, and 10 items that measure exposure to pro-social media content. The C-ME measures both the frequency and the content of adolescents’ and young adults’ media exposure, regardless of how the media is consumed (e.g., via TV, Internet, DVD, games).
This scale measures self-reported exposure to violent content in TV shows and games.
This measure was designed to determine if respondents misreport their exposure to television news because they do not devote sufficient effort to recalling instances of news exposure and estimating a frequency.
This measure makes use of the ‘‘item count technique’’ (Miller, 1984): Respondents read a list of behaviors and are asked to report how many of those behaviors they performed the day before the interview. This measure allows respondents to report their news exposure without revealing it to the interviewer, thus relieving presentational pressures.
This measure makes use of certain 'anchors' and thereby follows survey methodologists’ recommendations to point respondents towards effective estimation rules. Information about the frequency of the behavior in the population offers respondents a reference point for their estimates and encourages them to consider whether or not this reference point applies to them.
Measures individuals’ actual consumption of political media by testing three different measures of media exposure and compare them to the actual exposure.
Measures sexual media exposure in adolescence with 5 seperate questions. Youth were placed into 1 of 3 categories: (1) Almost none / No exposure to sexual material in any medium. (2) Some exposure to sexual material in at least 1 medium. (3) Many or almost all / all exposure to sexual material in at least 1 medium.
Measures the frequency consumers use media in the multi-media environment.
Newspapers: frequency of reading.
Measures newspaper use (subscription, bought, read).
This 'combined measure' of exposure to television advertising combines information about the viewing habits of individuals and the actual distribution of campaign advertisements. In this measure, exposure to a particular television ad is regarded as a function of two factors: the frequency with which an advertisement is aired in a particular media market and the quantity of television viewing by a particular respondent. This measure therefore weighs the frequency with which an advertisement is aired with self-reported television viewing for the relevant daypart.
Measures exposure to television: weekends and weekdays, number of hours a day
Measures general media use in the past week
Measures focused media use: frequency of media use about politics
Audience access: Respondents were asked whether they have access to television in their current residence. Then, respondents were asked to report the number of channels they can access through their TV sets and the cost for the multi-channel service in their current residence.
Audience availability: Measures the number of hous that a person is available to watch television. It is based on the respondent’s selection of time periods s/he is available to watch television on a typical weekday and a typical weekend.
Measures thin-ideal television exposure.
Measures weekly television viewing (hours/day).
Participants were presented with a copy of the previous weeks’ television guide and asked to circle the programmes they had actually watched. Based on this measure, total television viewing hours were calculated. Type of program was also determined.
A list of 17 common women’s fashion magazines was presented, with additional space to add ‘others’. For each magazine women were asked to indicate whether they had bought it in the last 4 weeks, read or looked at someone else’s copy and to estimate how much time they had spent on it.
Adult TV-violence viewing: A participant’s adult TV-violence viewing score was computed as the average violence rating for the participant’s three favorite regularly scheduled TV programs, weighted by the frequency of viewing each show.
Measures exposure to sexual content on television. Teens indicated how frequenctly they watched each of 23 programs during the previous television season. The selections included programs appearing on broadcast networks and basic and premium cable channels and encompassed animated and live-action shows, reality shows, sitcoms, and dramas.
Measures media use. Respondents were asked either typical week or past week questions assessing exposure to television news and newspapers.
Measures frequency of newspaper reading.
Measures the use of the internet in the last six months.
Measures magazine reading in the past year.
Measures radio use in the weekend.
Measures radio listening on an average weekday.
Measures television watching in the weekend.
Measures television watching on an average weekday.
Measures exposure to talk radio (in the last week).
Measures exposure to radio news (in the last week).
Measures exposure to local newspaper news (in the last week).
Measures exposure to local television news (in the last week).
Measures the exposure to national and international newspaper news (in the last week)
Measures the exposure to national television news (in the last week)
Measures monthly health media exposure by summing five items
Measures general media use by averaging television, newspaper and internet use in the past seven days.
Measures genre-specific media use, including the following programming types that are popular among young adults, and are likely to contain messages about sexuality: prime-time comedies, prime-time dramas, soap operas, music videos, and daytime talk shows.
Measures frequency of viewing music videos. The measure consists of five questions that examine the number of hours students watch music videos during the week (morning, afternoon and evening), on Saturday and on Sunday.
Indication of the number of movies they watched in theaters on cable television or rentals in a typical month.
Television viewing was assessed via six questions that asked participants to indicate the number of hours they watch TV (any channel) on an average weekday morning, afternoon, evening and late night, on Saturday and on Sunday. These six questions data were summed to create a measure of weekly television viewing hours, which was converted to monthly hours to be more consistent with the other measures.
Measures health media exposure in the past year: internet
Measures health media exposure in the past year: magazines and/or newsletters
Measures health media exposure in the past year: local TV news
Measures health media exposure in the past year: dramatic/comedy television
Measures health media exposure in the past year: newspapers and/or general magazines
Measures content-relevant and content-irrelevant television viewing. The former was constructed by adding the number of hours per week participants indicated that they watched the categories of daytime soap operas, evening dramas, news, news magazines, tabloid news, daytime talk shows, movies on television, and movies on VCR. The latter was constructed by adding the number of hours per week participants indicated they watched in the remaining categories (sports, comedies, music television, late night talk shows, and game shows).
Measures respondents their news exposure (days per week / minutes per day) for each of the four channels: newspaper, television, internet and radio
Measures national network news exposure.
Measures media exposure to four different news sources: television news on broadcast networks, television news on cable networks, print newspaper and online news. If respondents indicated that they had used a media source in the last week, then this measurement measures news media use attention to the news source.
Measures media exposure and recall towards television news with a program list.